Thursday, April 27, 2017

Origins 2017

Don't forget that abstracts for Origins 2017, to be held at San Diego Christian College on July 20-22, are due on May 5.  That's one week from tomorrow.  Get all the details at the Creation Biology Society website.

Now if you'll excuse me, I need to go back to scouring the internet for more information on pronghorns...  I bet you can guess why.

Feedback? Email me at toddcharleswood [at] gmail [dot] com. If you enjoyed this article, please consider a contribution to Core Academy of Science. Thank you.

Science Day Musings

The winners of the RCA Science Day.
I had a great time at our annual Science Day at Rhea County Academy last Friday. For the third year in a row, I helped judge all the science fair projects, and I was impressed this time with how much the projects have improved. Every student attempted some kind of experimental project, and the experimental design was much better this year.

This improvement was most noticeable in the ninth grade. I listened carefully as one student explained how her sample size wasn't quite big enough to calculate statistical significance, and I got into a great conversation with another student about his experimental design. These students were thinking very carefully about replicates, sources of error, bias, controls, and everything else that makes a good experiment. I'm accustomed to asking these sorts of questions to get students thinking, but these students were way ahead of me.  It was remarkable.

So how did they learn this?  Well, they have a good teacher, for one.  (I should know - I'm married to her!)  The ninth grade has also been using my Introduction to Science textbook which talks about all of these issues in great detail.  I was really excited to see how much of an impact that study is having.  The course is challenging them to understand how science works not just what science says.

Now if I can just find a good publisher...

Feedback? Email me at toddcharleswood [at] gmail [dot] com. If you enjoyed this article, please consider a contribution to Core Academy of Science. Thank you.

Tuesday, April 25, 2017

Will the real date of Homo naledi please stand up?

The hand of Homo naledi
Most of my readers know that I'm kind of excited by Homo naledi (or is it dangerously obsessed?  It's hard to tell sometimes.)  I've been eagerly awaiting news of the date and lead researcher Lee Berger's next discovery since news of H. naledi broke nearly twenty months ago.  To review, H. naledi was discovered in a nearly inaccessible cave chamber in the Rising Star cave system north of Johannesburg, South Africa.  The site is literally around the corner from two other important fossil hominin locations, Swartkrans and Sterkfontein, so the fact that something this amazing had been sitting under our noses all this time is kind of delightful.  What else might be lurking right around the corner?

H. naledi is a weird mix of traits.  The skull is small, and the arms are fit for climbing.  But the feet and legs are clearly made for walking, much like ours.  Reports from the latest meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, held last week in New Orleans, indicate that H. naledi had a brain anatomy similar to modern Homo sapiens and might have been able to talk. With this mix of traits, H. naledi looks like a category called "early Homo," which includes taxa like Homo habilis and Homo rudolfensis.  These guys don't look a whole lot like modern people, which raises very interesting questions about what exactly they are.  With H. naledi, its identity is even more interesting, since the evidence indicates that they buried their dead, which is a decidedly modern behavior.

If you've read my blog at all, you probably know that Berger's been sort of teasing his next big discovery for at least a year now.  When I heard him speak at AAPA last year in Atlanta, he indicated that the next big discovery would be out at the end of 2016 or maybe the beginning of 2017.  On Twitter, he's been quoted as indicating a date coming at the end of February, then March 18, and then sometime in April.  Berger's book Almost Human describing the H. naledi discovery was originally slated for publication in March, then pushed back a month to April, and is now set for May 9.  Clearly something is delaying the technical publications that describe the date and the new H. naledi discoveries, and now the leaks have started becoming a bit of a flood.

A new article in New Scientist today describes a date for the fossils from a published interview with Berger.  The date is 200,000 to 300,000 years ago, but Berger doesn't specify how they got that date.  The frustrating part of this date is that it's not exactly what's published in the book.  As I reported on March 2, you can check out some details about the date using Amazon.com's "Read Inside" function for Berger's Almost Human book.  On p. 217, we read that the date is between 250,000 and 450,000 years ago.  Which date is correct?  Who knows?  As I write this, the technical papers haven't been published yet.

The weird thing about all this is that Berger championed open science during the H. naledi excavation and during interviews after it was published.  He put the papers in an open access journal and emphasized how important it was to keep the public aware of how science works.  That's great, but there's a bit more to the story.  The first thing I noticed was that the open access journal eLife wasn't his first choice for publishing.  Nature rejected the H. naledi articles, presumably because the fossils were not dated.  Nature is not an open access journal, and neither is Science, which published Berger's articles on A. sediba.  The H. naledi articles that describe the details of its anatomy were published earlier this year in the Journal of Human Evolution, which is not only not open access but is published by Elsevier, one of the chief "villains" in the open access movement for its record-setting revenue generated by charging exorbitant publication and subscription fees.  Would you like a personal subscription to Journal of Human Evolution?  That'll be $572, please ($48 per issue).  On second thought...

Read through the rest of chapter 30 in Berger's Almost Human, and you'll find out about Chamber 102, which is also part of the Rising Star cave system and also contains Homo naledi remains.  Yes, Virginia, there really is a second burial site.  Wow!  When did this happen?  According to the book, they were excavating the second burial site at least since February of 2014.  That's more than a year before the first H. naledi publications appeared in September of 2015.  So the whole time they were excitedly talking about the Homo naledi discoveries at site 101 (the Dinaledi chamber), they had an ace up their sleeve in the form of site 102.  While they were passing out replicas of their composite Homo naledi skull from site 101, they knew they had an even better skull from site 102.  That's not exactly open science.

On the other hand, Berger does have one genuine, deep, and unmistakable commitment to openness in paleoanthropology.  He has led the way in breaking the old system of holding onto fossils for years while they're privately studied by a select few.  For example, Berkeley paleoanthropolgoist Tim White reported the discovery of Ardipithecus ramidus in 1994, but it took fifteen years before details of the fossils were finally published (and White seems to think that limited access and years of tedious private study is the correct way to do science).  Berger's team found H. naledi in 2013, and published the first papers in September of 2015.  Today, there are at least ten technical papers on H. naledi covering details of anatomy, phylogeny, and taphonomy.  The number of work hours spent on Ardipithecus and Homo naledi are probably similar, but Berger employed a much larger research group to speed up the process.  Berger's preference for rapid publication is far more open than things have been in the past, and frankly, I like it much better.

What will the date mean for the study of Homo naledi and other fossil hominins?  It's hard to say without the technical details.  In the meantime, I guess you can read the commentary at New Scientist.

Feedback? Email me at toddcharleswood [at] gmail [dot] com. If you enjoyed this article, please consider a contribution to Core Academy of Science. Thank you.

Monday, April 3, 2017

Catching up again


It's been a busy month.  Most of my time has been consumed with production on biology lessons for Schoolhouseteachers.com, and that's meant too many 13-hour days trying to get everything done.  The good news is that I've reached the end of that work.  I'll be putting the finishing touches on our final biology lessons this week!  Through that outreach, Core Academy reaches 6,000 families!  So it's definitely worth the long hours.

We also had our third Smoky Mountain Creation Retreat, and it was the biggest one yet.  We sold out for the first time ever, and we had nine students this year.  As usual, everyone stayed up way too late talking, which is kind of the point.  On Saturday, a bunch of folks went off hiking, while the rest of us just relaxed.  It was a great weekend!  I definitely want to thank all the donors to Core Academy who make this retreat possible every year.

Meanwhile, the world is still waiting for the details on the surprisingly recent date for Homo naledi and the revelation of the remains from Chamber 102.  I have no idea what's going on.  Probably editorial stuff.  Based on an article from The South African, I thought the big announcement was coming March 18, which admittedly seemed odd since it was a Saturday, but that didn't happen.  The book release for Berger's Almost Human has been pushed back again to May 9.  I did notice this morning that the American Association of Physical Anthropologists are meeting in New Orleans on the weekend of April 21, so if I had to guess, I'd say that will be the unveiling.

In other interesting science news, the age of the Little Foot skeleton has been questioned again.  Little Foot is the most complete and pristine australopith fossil ever discovered, and Ron Clarke has been working on it for nearly 20 years now.  It was found in a cave deposit in the Silberberg Grotto in Sterkfontein (literally around the corner from where Homo naledi was discovered).  Previously, researchers suggested a date of 3.67 million years, but this new paper argues that it's actually younger than 2.8 million years.  Who's right?  Honestly, the site sounds like it has a hugely complicated deposition, and it's way above this biochemist's pitifully small geology understanding.  I am fairly sure, though, that we haven't heard the last of the 3.67 million year date.

Also, genomic DNA sequences from the Wrangel Island mammoths have been published, and they're fantastic.  Wrangel Island is a Siberian island where a population of mammoths until surprisingly recently.  The most recent fossils from Wrangel Island date to 2000 BC by carbon dating.  The mammoths there were also dwarfs, and the isolation of this population on an island gives us an opportunity to study the effects of small population size on genomes.  What the researchers found was a surprisingly large number of loss-of-function mutations.  This confirms the basic idea that natural selection is less effective in smaller populations.

Feedback? Email me at toddcharleswood [at] gmail [dot] com. If you enjoyed this article, please consider a contribution to Core Academy of Science. Thank you.

Monday, March 27, 2017

Origins 2017 Call for Abstracts


The Origins 2017 call for abstracts is now available at the Creation Biology website:

Origins 2017 Call for Abstracts

This year, the conference is in sunny San Diego at San Diego Christian College on July 20-22.  The conference begins Thursday morning and runs through Friday, with a field trip planned for Saturday.  We'll open registration once we finalize the costs, but for now, get your abstracts in!  And please tell your friends, students, and colleagues.  ABSTRACTS ARE DUE MAY 5, 2017!

Feedback? Email me at toddcharleswood [at] gmail [dot] com. If you enjoyed this article, please consider a contribution to Core Academy of Science. Thank you.